Volume 6 , Issue 2 , June 2018 , Pages: 38 - 46
Comparative Antiproliferative Activity of Leaf and Stem Bark Extracts of Detarium senegalense and Leaf of Cymbopogon citratus
Francis Agada, Department of Pure and Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, Nigeria
Chika Muhammad, Department of Pure and Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, Nigeria
Ahmad Uba, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, Nigeria
Halilu Emmanuel Mshelia, Department of Pharmacognosy and Ethnopharmacy, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, Nigeria
Halima Lawal Zubairu, Department of Medicinal Chemistry and Quality Control, National Institute for Pharmaceutical Research and Development, Abuja, Nigeria
Received: Jan. 13, 2018;       Accepted: Jan. 29, 2018;       Published: Mar. 7, 2018
DOI: 10.11648/j.crj.20180602.11        View        Downloads  
Malignant cancer cells exhibit uncontrollable high proliferation similarly to meristematic cells of seeds, this led to the establishment that agents capable of producing antiproliferative effects are potential anticancer agents. The experimental plant used for this research was Sorghum bicolor seeds. The sole aim of this research work is to unveil the antiproliferative potential of Detarium senegalense and to evaluate the antiproliferative activity of leaf extract of Cymbopogon citratus on radicle length of Sorghum bicolor seeds. The three extracts were prepared at concentrations of 10, 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 mg/cm3 as well as methotrexate (reference standard) at concentration of 0.05 mg/cm3. The growth lengths were measured at 24, 48 and 72 hours of the experiment and expressed as percentage inhibition and percentage growth. The extracts produced considerable amount of antiproliferative effect on the radicle length of the seeds. The antiproliferative activity of the three extracts were concentration (dose) dependent, as the concentration of the extracts of leaves of D. senegalense increases, the percentage inhibition also increases, with a percentage of 89.47 % at an optimum concentration of 100 mg/cm3. Similarly, D. senegalense stem bark and C. citratus leaves showed percentage inhibition which corresponds to 73.68 % at optimum concentration of 100 mg/cm3 and 86.84 % at an optimum concentration of 80 mg/cm3 after the 72 hours of the incubation period. This research work however, has unveiled the use of D. senegalense as potential therapeutics for cancer treatment especially in developing countries, and has added a new-found knowledge to science.
Anticancer Agent, Antiproliferative Activity, Sorghum bicolor, Phytochemicals
To cite this article
Francis Agada, Chika Muhammad, Ahmad Uba, Halilu Emmanuel Mshelia, Halima Lawal Zubairu, Comparative Antiproliferative Activity of Leaf and Stem Bark Extracts of Detarium senegalense and Leaf of Cymbopogon citratus, Cancer Research Journal. Vol. 6, No. 2, 2018, pp. 38-46. doi: 10.11648/j.crj.20180602.11
Copyright © 2018 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
[ 1 ]
World Health Organization. NMH Fact Sheet No.297 2013. www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/
[ 2 ]
Arome D., Chinedu E, Solomon F. A., Amarachi A. and Rose M. E. (2013). ‘Evaluation of Anti-Proliferative Activities of Aqueous Leaf and Root Extracts of Cymbopogon Citratus’; Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biological Sciences; 1(5), 56 60.
[ 3 ]
Chinedu E., Arome D. and Ameh S. F. (2014). Preliminary Assessment of The Antiproliferative Potential of The Herbal Formula “Ekpo Aganwo”, Pharmatutor, 2(1), 157-161.
[ 4 ]
Sowemimo A. A., Pendota C., Okoh B., Omotosho T., Idika N., Adekunle A. A. and Afolayan A. J. (2011). Chemical Composition, Antimicrobial Activity, Proximate Analysis and Mineral Content of the Seed of Detarium Senegalense JF Gmelin., Nigeria. 10(48), 9875-9879.
[ 5 ]
Kaey R. W. J., Phil D. and Biol T. T. (1998). Trees of Nigeria. Oxford University Press London, Pp 204-207.
[ 6 ]
Abreu P. M., and Relva A. (2002). Carbohydrates from Detarium Microcarpum Bark Extract. Carbohydrate Research 337, 1663-1666.
[ 7 ]
Dalziel, J. M. (1995). The Useful Plants of West Tropical Africa. Gown Agents for Overseas Colonies, London. Pp. 552-560.
[ 8 ]
Okwu D. E. and Uchegbu R. (2009). Isolation, Characterization and Antibacterial Activity Screening of Ethoxyamine Tetrahydroxy-Anthocyanidines from/Detarium Senegalense Gmelin Stem Bark. African Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry, 3(1), 1-5.
[ 9 ]
Balakrishnan B., Paramasivam S. and Arulkumar A. (2014). Evaluation of the Lemongrass Plant (Cymbopogon citratus) Extracted in Different Solvents for Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activity Against Human Pathogens. Asian Pac. J. Trop. Dis., 4, S134-S139.
[ 10 ]
Omotade I. O. (2009). Chemical Profile and Antimicrobial Activity of Cymbopogon Citratus Leaves. J. Nat. Prod. 2, 98-103.
[ 11 ]
Gore M. S., Tare H. L., Deore S. R., Bidkar J. S. and Dama G. Y. (2010). Hemintholytic Potential of Cymbopogon Citratus Leaves Extract and Its Formulation as an Emulsion. Int. J. Pharm. Sci. Res. 1(10), 174-177.
[ 12 ]
Dama G. Y., Tare H. L., Gore M. S., Deore S. R. and Bidkar J. S. (2011). Comparative Hemintholytic Potential of Extracts Obtained from Cymbopogon Citratus and Wrightia Tinctoria Leaves. Int. J. Pharm. Bio. Sci. 2(1), 321-327.
[ 13 ]
Kokate C. K. and Varma K. C. (1971). Anthelmintic Activity of Some Essential Oils. Ind. J. Hosp. Pharm. 8, 150–151.
[ 14 ]
Darren G., Kelly L. R. and Lyn R. G. (2011). Isolation of Bioactive Compound That Relate to the Anti-Platelet Activity of Cymbopogon Ambiguus. J. Evid. Com. Alt. Med. 467(134), 1-8.
[ 15 ]
Schaneberg B. T. and Khan I. A. (2002). Comparison of Extraction Methods for Marker Compounds in The Essential Oil of Lemongrass By GC. J. Agric. Food Chem. 50, 1345-1349.
[ 16 ]
Carlson L. H. C., Machado R. A. F., Spricigo C. B., Pereira L. K. and Bolzan A. (2001). Extraction of Lemongrass Essential Oil with Dense Carbon Dioxide. J. Supercrit. Fl., 21, 33-39.
[ 17 ]
Tajidin N. E., Ahmad S. H, Rosenani A. B., Azimah H. and Munirah M. (2012). Chemical Composition and Citral Content in Lemongrass (Cymbopogon Citratus) Essential Oil at Three Maturity Stages. Afr. J. Biotechnol., 11(11), 2685-2693.
[ 18 ]
Lewinsohn E, Dudai N, Tadmor Y, Katzir I, Ravid U, Putievsky E, Joel DM (1998). Histochemical Localization of Citral Accumulation in Lemongrass Leaves (Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf., Poaceae). Ann. Bot. 81, 35-39.
[ 19 ]
Pengelly A. (2004). The Constituents of Medicinal Plants. (Ed.), An Introduction to The Chemistry and Therapeutics of Herbal Medicine. CABI Publishing, United Kingdom, pp. 85-103.
[ 20 ]
Bonati A. (1991). How and Why Should We Standardize Phytopharmaceutical Drugs for Clinical Validation? J. Ethnopharmacol. 32, 195-198.
[ 21 ]
Elisabetsky E., Amador T. A., Albuquerque R. R., Nunes D. S. and Calvalho A. C. T. (1995). Analgesic Activity of Psychotria Colorata (Willd. Ex R. & S.) Muell. Arg. Alkaloids. J. Ethnopharmacol. 48, 77-83.
[ 22 ]
Patwardhan B. (2005). Ethnopharmacology And Drug Discovery. J. Ethnopharmacol. 100, 50-52.
[ 23 ]
Harbourne, J. B. (1973). Phytochemical Methods: A Guide to Modern Techniques of Plant Analysis. Chapman and Hall, London, Pp 49-188.
[ 24 ]
Brain, K. R. and Turner T. D. (1975). The Practical Evaluation of Phytopharmaceuticals. Wrightscientechnica, Pp 81-144.
[ 25 ]
Evans, W. C. (2002). Text Book of Pharmacognosy, Saunders Elsevier Ltd. 15th edition. Pp336- 7.
[ 26 ]
Sofowora, A. (2008). Medicinal Plants and Traditional Medicine in Africa. 3rd Edition. Spectrum Books Ltd Ibadan-Nigeria, pp.1-69, 164.
[ 27 ]
Ayinde, B. A. and Agbakwuru U. (2010). Cytotoxc and Growth Inhibitory Effects of the Methanol Extract of Leaves of Struchium sparganophora Ktze (Asteraceae). Pharmacognosy magazine, 6 (24), 293- 297.
[ 28 ]
Ayinde, B. A., Omogbbai, E. K. I and Ikpefan, E. O. (2011). Comparative Cytotoxic and Antiproliferative Effects of Persea Americana Mill (Lauraceae) Leaf, Stem, and Root Barks. Nigerian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 10, 16-26.
Browse journals by subject